Lost shoes and teargas highlight mixed messages from Paris

timcadman

IMG_1546Photo: Cadman 2015

Amidst scenes of chaos and confusion, it is possible to discern the deeply divided nature of the response of Parisians and the world to the climate negotiations taking place in France’s capital city over the next two weeks.

After the November 13 terrorist attacks the French government banned the ‘Marche Climat’, which, it was predicted, would have over one million participants. Instead, those wishing to attend left shoes, and the Place de la Republique quickly filled up with these poignant reminders of the impact on democracy that the latest attacks have had. Four tonnes of shoes, organised by Avaaz.org.

But today people still came regardless. By midday there were 4,500 attendees, who created a human chain; within half an hour it was 10,000. Then came the teargas and police squads as the area was evacuated, and the subway station shut down. By four in the afternoon it…

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Hot-button issues in the climate talks

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Photo: Coral ‘bommie’, Michaelmas Cay, Great Barrier Reef (Cadman 2015)

With the Paris climate conference less than twenty four hours away, sources identify several key issues that have emerged in preliminary talks.

Most governmental Parties to the Convention (155 so far) have now submitted their nationally determined contributions to reducing emissions and keeping global temperatures within the 2 degrees centigrade recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Sources indicate that the aggregate number of contributions now reaches approximately 90% of the target required to prevent dangerous climate change, to be implemented between now and 2020. This is cause for some cautious optimism that countries are beginning to recognise the need for climate action. However, this is also to be tempered by the reality that how these reductions will be implemented will probably be the most significant challenge for negotiators over the next two weeks.

Climate finance has been a historical source of conflict between the developed and less developed countries during the Conferences of the Parties (COPs). Finance for capacity building (including technology) is essential if activities aimed at stoping climate change (mitigation) and coping with it (adaptation) are to be implemented effectively. Given the present reality of climate change for small island developing states (SIDS), increased funding for responding to exisiting and future sea level rise is essential.

This leads on to another contentious discussion, that of climate change-related loss and damage. This is a separate negotiating stream, and one that has been pushed by the SIDS (especially Tuvalu) for several years, and while it is good to see that it has been a formal Convention mechanism since Warsaw COP 19, discussions are still not especially advanced, and developed countries, who are afraid they will will end up paying for their own emissions legacy have been reluctant to fund any formal arrangements for redress.

However, on the mitigation front, sources also indicate that it is unlikely that any final decision will be arranged over the fate of the Clean development Mechanism, the one (relatively) successful market mechanism aimed at reducing emissions. However, strong emissions reduction targets will make it more likely that the CDM will continue, as methods for trading ‘offsets’ have so far proven to work – methodologically, at least, even if the current value of carbon is not especially high.

But the hand of negotiators will only be strengthened if there is sufficient external pressure on their political overlords from civil society and business. So far, there has been strong engagement from these stakeholders. It is hoped that this will maintain the dynamism of the discussions, and push the transformation of the global economy away from fossil fuel dependence and towards a deeply ‘decarbonised’ future.

One unifying ‘meta issue’ connected to all these negotiating elements is the extent to which anything that comes out of Paris will be subject to good governance. At the moment exiting compliance and enforcement under the Kyoto Protocol is something of a toothless tiger. Without it, everything may go up in smoke.

Visit climateregimemap.net to navigate your way through the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change

Taking (carbon) stock of the Paris climate negotiations in the wake of November 13

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As the citizens of France and the world mourn the loss of life in Paris earlier this month at the hands of misguided fanatics, it is troubling note the parallels between the inability of the global policy community to combat both religious extremism and climate change. Consider the following scenario. A global menace, that has been years in the making, largely created by the industrialised nations, has reached a point where its catastrophic consequences demand an international response. Millions of people in the less developed world are drawn into the conflagration, and hundreds of thousands more are displaced. Yet the intergovernmental regime, and the United Nations in particular, seems powerless to do anything, paralysed by a bizarre set of mutually incompatible interests. Seeing an existential threat to their own way of life, countries that could easily help alleviate the suffering of ordinary civilians squabble amongst themselves, and hide behind their own increasingly militarised borders. This in turn only serves to exacerbate regional tensions as affected populations become ever more desperate to flee the escalating situation, angered and embittered by the lack of action. The inevitable consequences: more conflict, and more people on the move. Spot the difference?

As the twenty-first Conference and Meeting of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change approaches, the scenario outlined above seems ever more likely. The endless round of pre-negotiations referred to as the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP), and the two work streams, focusing on the 2015 agreement, and the post 2020 ambition have not yet brought anything substantive to the table. There is still no indication as to whether the now-expired Kyoto Protocol will be replaced by a ‘protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force’. In addition, the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions to reducing greenhouse gas emissions do not look as if they will be enough to limit global temperatures to the 1.5 degrees centigrade increase above pre-industrial levels recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Given the results of the 2013 national assessments of greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals prepared for the Bonn mid-year negotiations, this does not come as a surprise. But it does come as a bitter disappointment. It is hardly unexpected that Australia, which negotiated an emissions increase for itself above the 1990 base year, delivered on its promise. Given the current Federal Government’s love affair with coal-fired power, it should also be no surprise that the increase should come from the energy sector. But it is none the less alarming when it is taken into consideration that over 1.4 million small-scale solar systems are now installed in homes and business across the country, accounting for 2% of electricity generated. More disappointing, is a comparison with Austria, conveniently located next to Australia in the reporting tables, which despite a previous commitment to reducing them by 19%, exceeded its emissions target by 22% (OECD Economic Survey 2013: 130), despite actively participating in the European Union Emissions Trading System.

Is there any light at the end of the tunnel? The Clean Development Mechanism, one of the Kyoto Protocol’s ‘flexible’ mechanisms, has registered over 7,000 projects in developing countries, which it claims have led to over 1.3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide being ‘offset’ from activities in developed countries, and purchased by companies to meet national carbon reduction targets. However, the fate of the CDM is caught up in the negotiations to take place in Paris. Despite some initial teething problems, its robust project design methodologies, and accounting procedures have injected some rigour into emissions trading. But it is not well loved by NGOs, who claim abuses of human rights in some projects, and it might be argued, by some developing countries, which favour non-market mechanisms (Cadman 2014).

This good news is overshadowed by industrialised country posturing over who pays for the damage inflicted on low-lying countries by sea-level rise from historical emissions of greenhouse gasses. The Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage has been another of the negotiating streams that seeks to address issues associated with the impacts of climate change, but the idea of compensation was blocked by Australia and Britain in 2013. There seems to be no progress in the wake of this year’s negotiations in Bonn, despite a further meeting in September, and without it, the legitimacy of the climate deal has been questioned. Given that the Syrian crisis has been partly linked to drought induced by global warming, the need for an equitable solution to both the mass movement of people and climate change is all the more pressing.

But it is also easier to blame the climate negotiators for lack of action, than it is to confront the massive complexity that finding a solution poses. With 196 signatories, including the EU as a region, and over 300 institutional elements, agreements, organisations, bodies, and formal and informal groupings it is amazing anything gets done at all. Perhaps a global convention to combat religious extremism is not such a bad idea.

The Turn of the Screw: The Study Guide Edition

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“A great teacher,” Jeremy Paxman, BBC’s Newsnight.

“Clearly Francis Gilbert is a gifted and charismatic teacher,” Philip Pullman, author of ‘Northern Lights’.

“Gilbert writes so well that you half-suspect he could give up the day job,” The Independent.

Are you a student struggling to understand Henry James’s classic novella?

Or are you an educator wanting ready-made exercises and guidance to help you teach this difficult text? Do your students need support to understand the language properly and work independently on the book?

This edition of James’s haunting narrative contains a comprehensive study guide as well as activities that stimulate and engage. Aimed specifically at pupils reading the book as an exam text, there are detailed instructions about how to understand the challenging language, to appreciate the novel’s contexts and to write effective essays. The complete text is punctuated by analysis and questions on every chapter with answers provided at the back. Essential reading for all students and teachers!

You can buy the paperback here.

 

Wuthering Heights — A Study Guide

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You can buy the book here on Amazon.

Do you know the answers to these questions?

What fantasy world did Emily and her sisters invent which influenced the writing of the novel?

What does the novel have in common with modern-day soap operas?

How and why does Bronte make Heathcliff so unpleasant and yet so attractive?

How and why was Bronte influenced by Elizabethan dramas called Revenger’s Tragedies?

In what ways is the novel about social status?

If these questions have got you think, then maybe you should buy this study guide.

This is a detailed guide for anybody either studying or teaching Emily Bronte’s novel, Wuthering Heights. It is tailored to help students write an excellent piece of coursework on the book, or assist them with studying for an exam. It could also be very useful for a teacher teaching the text in the classroom: it includes a long section which consists of important passages in the book, together with useful literary analysis of these quotations, followed by comprehension questions and discussion points. The guide is possibly more useful than many on the market because it is a) modern in its approach b) encourages a personal response to the text — vital if a candidate is going to get a higher mark in an exam. The guide includes a detailed discussion of the context Bronte’s fiction arose from, and an exploration how we interpret the novel now. It is lively and engaging in its approach and includes a useful summary of the book. It is written by an experienced teacher who understands what needs to be covered in a study guide. It should prove to be an excellent resource for GCSE and A Level students.

To sum up, this study guide is useful in the following ways:

It is a great resource for students aiming for top grades;

It offers a fantastic stimulus for encouraging students to develop personal responses to the text, which are vital if they are going to achieve at a high level;

It could prove to be a great classroom resource for teachers too; the important sections of the novel are quoted in full here, together with useful discussion points/comprehension questions;

It is written by an experienced teacher who has taught the text in “real” classroom situations and knows what students need to learn. You get the book here on Amazon.

The Changes: Book 1 — Tim Cadman

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Climate change is escalating rapidly. Charles Peters, a low-level nobody in what’s left of the UN, is sent on an unexplained mission to save humanity. Madé, an Indonesian child refugee, must endure the powerlessness of ‘people-processing’ in an era of displacement and disease. Marie-Claude Bertillon must take responsibility for the lives of these, and many millions more, as she seeks to implement a radical solution. All are victims of the terrible choices made in the historical past – today. The first book in a series of personal histories, ‘The Changes’ plays out the shocking reality of what the world will be like for the people of tomorrow if we fail to take action now.
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Brontë’s Wuthering Heights: The Study Guide Edition

 


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“A great teacher,” Jeremy Paxman, BBC’s Newsnight.

“Clearly Francis Gilbert is a gifted and charismatic teacher,” Philip Pullman, author of ‘Northern Lights’.

“Gilbert writes so well that you half-suspect he could give up the day job,” The Independent.

Are you a student struggling to understand Emily Brontë’s classic novel ‘Wuthering Heights’?

Or are you an educator wanting ready-made exercises and guidance to help you teach this difficult text? Do your students need support to understand the language properly and work independently on the book? This edition of Emily Brontë ‘s classic novel contains a comprehensive study guide as well as activities that stimulate and engage. Aimed specifically at pupils reading the book as an exam text, there are detailed instructions about how to understand the challenging language, to appreciate the novel’s contexts and to write effective essays. The complete text is punctuated by analysis and questions on every chapter with answers provided at the back. Essential reading for all students and teachers!

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Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice: The Study Guide Edition

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“A great teacher,” Jeremy Paxman, BBC’s Newsnight.

“Clearly Francis Gilbert is a gifted and charismatic teacher,” Philip Pullman, author of Northern Lights.

“Gilbert writes so well that you half-suspect he could give up the day job,” The Independent.

Are you a student struggling to understand Jane Austen’s classic novel Pride and Prejudice? Or are you an English teacher wanting ready-made exercises and guidance to help you teach this difficult text? Do your students need support to understand the language properly and work independently on the book? This edition of Austen’s classic novel contains a comprehensive study guide as well as extensive questions that stimulate and engage. Aimed specifically at students and teachers reading the book as an exam text, there is a detailed introduction which outlines the historical context of the novel, the ways in which it was influenced by the other genres/writers and how it is structured. The complete text is punctuated by useful comments and questions on every chapter.  There is also a section on how to write successful essays. When you buy the paperback, you will be able to access the e-book for free and use many of the web links which are embedded in it.

Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein: The Study Guide Edition

1st createspace cover 26th October 2015Mary_Shelleys_Frank_Cover_for_Kindle

“A great teacher,” Jeremy Paxman, BBC’s Newsnight.

“Clearly Francis Gilbert is a gifted and charismatic teacher,” Philip Pullman, author of Northern Lights.

“Gilbert writes so well that you half-suspect he could give up the day job,” The Independent.

Are you a student struggling to understand Mary Shelley’s classic novel Frankenstein?

Or are you an educator wanting ready-made exercises and guidance to help you teach this difficult text? Do your students need support to understand the language properly and work independently on the book?

This edition of Shelley’s classic horror novel contains a comprehensive study guide to the work as well as extensive questions for students to work on in order to help their understanding. Aimed specifically at students and teachers reading the book as an exam text, there is a detailed introduction which outlines how to understand the difficult language, how to write top grade essays, and how to discuss the contexts of the novel. The complete text is punctuated by useful comments and engaging tasks on every chapter. When you buy the paperback, you will be able to access the e-book for free and use many of the web links which are embedded throughout the text.

“What’s really great about this edition is that my students can work through it and there are interesting and useful questions waiting for them at the end of every chapter,” a secondary English teacher.

“This was a good book to work through on my own. Buying the paperback meant I got the e-book free and I was able to use all the nifty links embedded in the text as well,” an A Level student.

Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre: The Study Guide Edition

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“A great teacher,” Jeremy Paxman, BBC’s Newsnight. “Clearly Francis Gilbert is a gifted and charismatic teacher,” Philip Pullman, author of Northern Lights.

“Gilbert writes so well that you half-suspect he could give up the day job,” The Independent.

Are you a student struggling to understand Brontë’s classic novel Jane Eyre?

Or are you an educator wanting ready-made exercises and guidance to help you teach this difficult text? Do your students need support to understand the language properly and work independently on the book? This edition of Brontë ‘s classic novel contains a comprehensive study guide as well as activities that stimulate and engage. Aimed specifically at students and teachers reading the book as an exam text, there are detailed instructions about how to understand the challenging language, to appreciate the novel’s context and to write effective essays. The complete text is punctuated by analysis and questions on every chapter.

The e-book contains the best weblinks on the novel.

“What’s really great about this edition is that my students can work through it and there are interesting and useful questions waiting for them at the end of every chapter,”  a secondary English teacher.

“This was a good book to work through on my own. Buying the paperback meant I got the e-book free and I was able to use all the nifty links embedded in the text as well,” an A Level student.